A brief overview of the current views on the functional role of genetic VNTR polymorphism in humans is given. Data on the involvement of VNTRs in the regulation of gene expression and in the formation of complex phenotypes are presented. According to these data, the effects of VNTRs are determined by the number of repeats, the structure of their monomers and flanking haplotypes, epigenetic mechanisms in the case of localization in imprinted regions and can be modified by environmental factors.
Some possible mechanisms of the influence of VNTRs on the level of expression are considered. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Gorbunova, V. Google Scholar. Wan, Q. Ames, D. Jeffreys, A. Puzyrev, V. Genomika—meditsine Genomics, MedicineKiselev, L.
Food-related illness and death in the United States.
Ku, C. Le Fur, S. Genomics, vol. Klenova, E. Acids Res. Moore, G. Marchand, L. Heinz, A. Fuke, S. Guiadalini, C. USA, vol. Laucht, M. Psychiatry, vol.Ahmmed, S. Research on Agricultural Machinery Development in Bangladesh.
March Ziauddin, A. Ahmed, M. Design of improved urea supper granule applicator. ISSN Khan, R. And Ziauddin, A. Journal of Agricultural Machinery and Bioresource Engineering. ISSN Vol. Hasan, M. Acta Horticulture. Progressive Agriculture. Hossain, M. Hossain, A. Ziauddin, C. Meisner, M. Tanshen and M. Rahman Development of two wheel tractor operated pick type potato planter for small farmer. International Journal of Energy Machinery. Jabbar, M. Ziauddin and M.
Impact of a targeted project on technology adoption and crop yields of resource poor farmers in Bangladesh.
Design and development of power tiller operated cup type potato planter.Jump to navigation. Ahmed M. Mohammed Hirzallah and Marwan Krunz, " Intelligent tracking of network dynamics in cross-technology coexistence over unlicensed bands ," Proc. Manjesh K. Hanawal, Diep N. Irmak Aykin, Berk Akgun, and Marwan Krunz, " Smartlink: exploiting channel clustering effects for reliable millimeter wave communications ," Proc.
Wessam Afifi, Mohammad J. Berk Akgun, Marwan Krunz, and O. Berk Akgun, O. Mahmoud Ashour, M. Mohammad J. Gulnur Selda Uyanik, Mohammad J. Hanif Rahbari, Marwan Krunz, and Loukas Lazos, " Security vulnerability and countermeasures of frequency offset correction in Diep N. Satyajeet S. Raed Al-Zubi, Mohammad Z. Mohammad Z. Jesus Arango and Marwan Krunz, " Improving throughput in Shorey, C. Choon, O. Tsang, and A. Van Mieghem, F.The carious status of the first permanent molar FPM was studied in school children aged 9—12 years from a randomly selected primary schools from Sharfia area of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The sample consisted of children from each age group of 9, 10, 11, and 12 years old. In total, Almost one-third The children who had received advice regarding oral hygiene from a dentist or parent had more sound FPMs compared to the children who did not receive any advice.
The number of carious FPMs increased with age. The prevalence of caries of the FPM was high and increased with increasing age. The level of knowledge had a positive correlation with the caries levels amongst this cohort of scholars. Jeddah is a commercial city situated at the western coast of Saudi Arabia. In the Sharfia district of Jeddah, majority of people are from India, Pakistan, and other Asian countries. In this region, there have been no studies undertaken to determine the prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molars FPMs.
In recent years, the global distribution of dental caries presents a varied picture; most of the countries with low caries prevalence are experiencing an unprecedented increase in caries prevalence and severity of dental caries including Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, in several industrialized countries, a reduction of dental caries incidence and improvement of gingival health care are evident [ 12 ].
This decline in dental caries is mainly due to appropriate use of fluorides and preventive oral health measures [ 34 ]. Dental caries is one of the most highly prevalent diseases in children, and the FPMs are important as they are very prone to caries because of their anatomical structure and early eruption in the mouth.
As a result, many children have to visit the dental professional requiring restorations or extractions of these molars. This is expensive, time consuming, and often traumatic for the young child. Hence the prevention of dental caries remains an important responsibility of the dental profession.
Many studies [ 34 ] have stressed the importance of oral hygiene instruction, the regular use of topical and systemic fluoride, and the application of fissure sealants in the prevention of dental caries especially on the first permanent molars. Several studies have reported high dental caries prevalence in school children from Saudi Arabia and other developing countries [ 5 — 11 ]. The frequency of involvement of dental surfaces by caries lesions varies with age, and peak of intensity occurs during certain stages of human life [ 12 ].
The incidence of caries among the various teeth varies considerably. The morphology, time of eruption, and positioning of the tooth in the oral cavity confer inherited disadvantages or advantages to the various methods used in the control of plaque and hence tooth decay and losses. A Japanese study showed that most of occlusal caries occurred years after their eruption [ 16 ]. These studies showed that, with increasing age, there was an increase in the prevalence of dental caries of the first permanent molars.
In Jeddah, similar to other Saudi cities, the prevalence of dental caries is high and it is essential to obtain base line data regarding the condition of the first permanent molars so that appropriate prevention and treatment options can be implemented. This study was unique as it set out to determine the baseline data of a community that was neglected. This data will serve as a basis for the introduction and monitoring of intervention and educational oral health programmes for this community.
Follow-up studies will be done on an annual basis to monitor the outcomes and if necessary modify and improve the oral health package that will be recommended. Depending on the results obtained, relevant and practical recommendations will be suggested.
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in the first permanent molars among 9—year-old school children from the Sharfia district, Jeddah. The second aim was to correlate the prevalence of caries in relation with the dental knowledge.
A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries in the FPMs. A total of school children were examined from randomly selected primary school in the Sharfia district, Jeddah.
The sample consisted of a total of male and female children from each age group of 9, 10, 11, and 12 years Figure 1. The sample size for the study was determined using pathfinder survey technique as described by the World Health Organization WHO [ 21 ].
Consent for examination of the children was obtained from the respective headmaster of the schools.Wang and N. Salama, N. Shroff, and E. Galatsanos and A.
Lin and N. Shroff, "The fundamental relationship between the capacity and delay in mobile wireless networks," Chapter 2, in post-proceedings of the NSF-RPI workshop, Mao, C.
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Tan, A.To better quantify the impact of foodborne diseases on health in the United States, we compiled and analyzed information from multiple surveillance systems and other sources.
We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses,hospitalizations, and 5, deaths in the United States each year. Known pathogens account for an estimated 14 million illnesses, 60, hospitalizations, and 1, deaths. Overall, foodborne diseases appear to cause more illnesses but fewer deaths than previously estimated. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Emerg Infect Dis v. Emerg Infect Dis. MeadL. SlutskerV. DietzL. McCaigJ.
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Functional role of VNTR polymorphism of human genes
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